Physical, chemical and molecular properties of curcuminoids

Two roomy components of turmeric are the volatile oil and curcuminoids and both are attainment in oleoresin extracted from the turmeric root. The injured oils are composed mainly of sesquiterpenes, many of which are specific for the Curcuma genus. The aroma of this spice is principally derived from a- and b-turmerones and aromatic turmerone (Ar-turmerone).24 The chemical structures of curcuminoids make them much less soluble in water at acidic and genderless pH, but soluble in methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone. The curcuminoids manage to pay for a ocher-yellowish-brown coloration to turmeric powder due to the broad electronic delocalization inside the molecules that exhibit sealed absorption along amid 420 to 430 nm in an organic solvent. The curcuminoids are a mixture of curcumin, chemically a diferuloylmethane [1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3- methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione] infected gone its two derivatives, demethoxy curcumin [4-hydroxycinnamoyl-(4- hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl) methane] and bis-demethoxy curcumin [bis-(4-hydroxy cinnamoyl) methane], defining the chemical formulae as C21H20O6, C20H18O5 and C19H16O4 respectively.17 The chemical structures of important constituents assert in turmeric are true in Fig. 1. They share the same structure gone two benzenemethoxy rings, allied by an unsaturated chain. It has three important functions: an aromatic methoxy phenolic work; a,bunsaturated b-diketo linker and keto-enol tautomerism. All these compounds exist in the trans-trans keto-enol form. The aromatic groups offer hydrophobicity and the linker have the funds for flexibility. The tautomeric structures in addition to influence the hydrophobicity andpolarity. The hydrophobicity of curcuminoids makes them ill soluble in water. Three acidity constants (pKa) were measured for curcuminoids as follows, pKa1 8.38 0.04, pKa2 9.88 0.02 and pKa3 10.51 0.01.25 Typical curcuminoids composition of popular Indian varieties was found to do something the range of CUR 52e63%, DMC 19e27% and BDMC 18e28%.17 The hope of this review was to overview the biological activities of curcuminoids and new biomolecules from turmeric and moreover discussed the effects and applications of curcuminoids and its vary types of derivatives.
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